My objectives in this study are twofold. First, I will analyze the legal strategies developed by feminist attorneys in response to donor custody suits brought against lesbian mothers. This will entail an analysis of the related but distinct court rulings in which gay and lesbian parents were denied custody to children conceived in heterosexual marriages. The latter type of custody battle preceded the proliferation of donor insemination, and I suspect greatly influenced feminist responses to the possibility of donors bringing paternity claims. Second, I will show that this legal imperative was a significant factor in drawing lesbians pursuing motherhood into the medical marketplace of sperm banks and fertility treatment. To complete these objectives, I will draw on the extensive archival materials made available to me by individuals that participated in these projects. I will also analyze oral histories I have conducted with key players in these efforts. Lastly, I will examine the public court rulings on donor custody suits as well as the evolution of state parentage laws. Through writing the history of these developments, I aim to highlight the constraints that shaped these strategies while also exploring their unintended effects for the political project of lesbian motherhood. In doing so, I offer a case study that illustrates how the feminist health ethic of self-expertise and bodily autonomy sits uneasily alongside American liberalism’s investment in choice and privacy. This tension continues to shape contemporary debates related to ARTs as well as reproductive rights more broadly.